Apprehension Test of Shoulder
Have the patient in the supine position, with the arm abducted 90 degrees. Rotate the shoulder externally by pushing the forearm posteriorly. If patient feels instability, they typically will balk when the test is performed.
Laxity Test of Shoulder
Have the patient in the supine position. Stabilize the scapula, and slide the humeral head anteriorly and posteriorly within the glenoid fossa to evaluate the stability of the joint. Note the axial load being applied to the elbow.