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15 May 2009
SWD and MWD use in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
Pelvic inflammatory disease PID (Process IDentifier) A temporary number assigned by the operating system to a process or service.
(Proportional-Integral-Derivative) The most common control methodology in process control. ), although distinct from primary dysmenorrhea, causes similar symptoms of severe debilitating
Causing a loss of strength or energy.Debilitating Weakening, or reducing the strength of. Mentioned in: Stress Reduction pelvic and abdominal pain, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting Nausea and Vomiting Definition
Nausea is the sensation of being about to vomit. Vomiting, or emesis, is the expelling of undigested food through the mouth. , which is unresponsive to traditional pain-relieving medications, antibiotics, or modalities. Although the exact cause of primary dysmenorrhea is unknown, PID is caused by bacterial infections, the most common of which are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Using the key words "diathermy and pelvic inflammatory disease," a second MEDLINE search yielded only one reference, a case report in Physical Therapy. The patient had constant and diffuse abdominal pain radiating to the lumbar region due to PID. Following a series of nine treatments with shortwave diathermy (SWD) over a short period of time (less than 3 weeks), the patient was pain-free, and remained so for 6 months after treatment (at the time the case report was written).
A review of recent physical therapy textbooks uncovered three references that describe the treatment of PID with either SWD or microwave diathermy (MWD MWD Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
MWD Measurement While Drilling (oil drilling)
MWD Morgan Stanley Dean Witter (stock symbol)
MWD Molecular Weight Distribution
MWD Military Working Dog ), but these references were not research based.[10-12] A review of rehabilitation medicine textbooks written before 1960 also yielded descriptions of SWD and MWD in treating PID (usually secondary to gonorrhea), with references to earlier research papers. More recent rehabilitation medicine textbooks, if they do mention PID, still refer to articles written in the 1930s and 1940s, or to the book chapters mentioned earlier.[14,15] Antibiotics have apparently lessened the need for "deep heating" techniques in treating patients with PID from the medical management perspective. Nothing could be found in the literature documenting the use of either SWD or MWD in treating patients with primary dysmenorrhea.
Diathermy utilizes high-frequency electromagnetic waves to heat deep tissues, especially those with high water content. Presumably That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. , dissolved molecules and ions oscillate To swing back and forth between the minimum and maximum values. An oscillation is one cycle, typically one complete wave in an alternating frequency. at the frequency of the reversing electromagnetic field, generating heat. Skin, especially when dry, contains relatively little water, and thus becomes only mildly heated. Deeper structures, such as muscle, extra-cellular fluid, and blood, are heated more selectively.
Microwave diathermy utilizes higher-frequency electromagnetic waves than does SWD (2,450 MH versus 27.12 MHz) . These higher-frequency transmissions, generated by a magnetron magnetron (măg`nĭtrŏn'), vacuum tube oscillator (see electron tube) that generates high-power electromagnetic signals in the microwave frequency range. , are focused and "beamed" into the tissues from varying distances. The selection of SWD or MWD is correct when the desired treatment outcome is to raise tissue temperature, increase extensibility of deep collagen tissue, decrease joint stiffness, relieve deep pain and muscle spasm, increase blood flow, and assist in the resolution of inflammation. Potential hazards with either type of diathermy are from internal and external metallic objects and electromedical devices at the treatment site, including metal implants and metallic intrauterine devices. People using metallic intrauterine devices should not receive either diathermy modality to the lumbar, pelvic, or abdominal area. In addition, SWD and MWD are generally contraindicated in the presence of hemorrhage.
The frequencies used for SWD and MWD are too fast to depolarize depolarize act of depolarization. nerve or muscle membranes. Thus, neither innervated innervated adjective Containing or characterized by nerves nor denervated denervated Neurology Nervelessness; loss of neural connections. See Chemical denervation. muscles contract. This factor is important because the pain of primary dysmenorrhea is believed to be caused by the contraction of the muscles of the uterus and further contraction of these muscles would not be desired. The Federal Communications Commission regulates the frequencies that can be generated by medical devices. In the United States, the assigned frequencies for SWD are 13.56, 27.12, and 40.68 MHz, whereas 2,450 MHz is reserved for MWD.
The effectiveness of diathermy treatment depends on its intensity and duration. A recent German article reported close correlations between magnitude of blood flow, length of treatment, and therapeutic intensity. The 20-minute treatment was the most effective treatment. Therapists must use the patient's heat-sensation response as a guide for dosage. Table 1 defines the four types of dosages that are used. Documentation of treatments should include the following: (1) type of electromagnetic energy; (2) commercial model name; (3) type of applicator An instrument for applying something, such as a medication. applicator, n a device for applying medication; usually a slender rod of glass or wood, used with a pledget of cotton on the end. used; (4) description of where on the body the applicator was applied or directed; (5) duration of treatment; (6) power output level; (7) pulse frequency and duration, if pulsed diathermy is used; and (8) the patient's response to the treatment.
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